AN INVASION BY THE CZECH RULER PŘEMYSL OTAKAR II AGAINST BAVARIA IN THE SUMMER OF 1257

Keywords: the Czech Kingdom, the Duchy of Bavaria, Archdiocese of Salzburg, Přemysl Otakar II, Henry XIII Wittelsbach, Ludwig II Wittelsbach, Bela IV, Philipp Spanheim, Ulrich von Kirchberg

Abstract

The article covers the background and course of the invasion by the Czech ruler Přemysl Otakar II against the possession of the Duke of Bavaria Henry XIII Wittelsbach in order to regain his control over certain territories in the country’s west. Besides, Přemysl Otakar II sought to assist indirectly his cousin, the Archbishop of Salzburg, Philip of Spanheim, who was a skilled warrior but a poor spiritual prince. That was why the chapter elected the new Archbishop of Salzburg Ulrich von Kirchberg. However, Philipp Spanheim did not intend to give up his benefit so easily and started a war against Ulrich von Kirchberg and the chapter.

Přemysl Otakar II invaded Bavaria with his Czech-Austrian forces in late summer of 1257. He acted extremely cruel there, impoverishing everything around. However Duke Henry XIII Wittelsbach was quickly able to mobilize his armed forces. Resistance of the Bavarians was unexpected for the Czech ruler, so he decided to conclude a truce and retreat. While crossing the river Inn near Mühldorf a wooden bridge under the pressure of Přemysl Otakar II's soldiers  broke through and water took the lives of many of them. The Czech ruler himself  was lucky enough to get to the thither river bank before the tragic moment. Many Czechs and Austrians had been burned to death while seeking protection in a tower that the Bavarians set on fire. Decimated forces of Přemysl Otakar II have reached up to Mühldorf, where within 9 days they held out, and then lay down their arms and were allowed to leave the city. Military campaign of 1257 had catastrophic consequences, so Přemysl Otakar II had to abandon his plans. He was forced to conclude a peace treaty with the Duke of Bavaria, Henry XIII Wittelsbach, according to which he renounced all disputed territories

 

Likhtei, I. (2020). An Invasion by the Czech Ruler Přemysl Otakar II Against Bavaria in the Summer of 1257. Mìžnarodnì zv’âzki Ukraïni: naukovì pošuki ì znahìdki – The International relations of Ukraine: scientific searches and findings, 29, 166-180 [in Ukrainian].

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Published
2020-11-10